(2003). 10.3945/jn.115.215772 Dysfunctions in this process of remodeling during transportation may be related to different diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and others (Sigal et al., 2011; Vinagre et al., 2013). 85, 1148–1156. When analyzed subjects with an inflammatory profile established by non-transmissible chronic diseases, as metabolic syndrome, Casella-Filho et al. 2020 Nov 10;2020:3429541. doi: 10.1155/2020/3429541.  |  -, Basu A., Betts N. M., Leyva M. J., Fu D., Aston C. E., Lyons T. J. For high-risk individuals, the recommendation is <200 mg/d (4, 5). Lipid metabolism involves several pathways that are, at least in part, interdependent, such as hepatic synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL); uptake of fatty acids (FA) by skeletal muscle and / or adipose tissue; extrahepatic transport of cholesterol by low density lipoprotein; and removal of excess cholesterol by high density lipoproteins (HDL-c). Lipoprotein apoprotein metabolismo. (South Dartmouth, MA: MDText.com, Inc.). 2016. Exercise can modulate genetic and protein expression of Apo A-1, ABCA1 hepatic and immune system cells, and increase the activity of Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.629354, Diniz, T. A., Rossi, F. E., Fortaleza, A. C. S., Neves, L. M., Christofaro, D. G. D., Buonani, C., et al. *Correspondence: Daniela C. Gonçalves, dacaetanog@gmail.com, Front. Also, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) can transfer cholesterol ester particles of HDL-c to other lipoproteins (Grandjean et al., 2000; Durstine et al., 2002), given that both enzymes are associated with RCT. STUDIES ON FACTORS INFLUENCING HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN FUNCTIONALITY AND REVERSE CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT . Adiponectin and its receptor genes' expression in response to Marek's disease virus infection of White Leghorns. J. Clin. Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms: a systematic review of clinical trials. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. (2016). Physical inactivity contributes to increased cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, which are leading causes of death worldwide (Rosamond et al., 2008). Reverse cholesterol transport is a mechanism by which the body removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers them to the liver, where it will be redistributed to other tissues or removed from the body by the gallbladder. J. Cardiopulm. (1) The liver synthesizes Apo A-1 that enters the bloodstream. 22, 385–398. The effect of 6 weeks of endurance training on the expression of hepatic ABCA1 in male wistar rats. (2006). Res. Am. Biophys. Chin. Abstract: The risk of atherosclerosis is inversely related to circulating levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Biomed. 303, E1212–E1221. Nutr. Molecular regulation of HDL metabolism and function: implications for novel therapies. Trying to clarify the mechanisms by which acute and persistent exercise improve lipid profile and consequently decrease the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases, studies carried out in the 21st century investigated the role of PPAR as a possible regulator of lipid and glycemic metabolism in RCT. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2016 Aug. Report No. dustrialized nations. Bioimpacts 2, 39–45. ABCA1 expression in humans is associated with physical activity and alcohol consumption. Olive oil phenolic compounds and high-density lipoprotein function. Summary of the effects of training strategies on lipids profile and RCT pathway in humans. These particles are formed by a hydrophobic core containing triacylglycerol and esterified cholesterol, also containing on its surface a coating formed by a monophasic layer of phospholipids, non-esterified cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. Endocrinol. Mangiferin supplementation improves serum lipid profiles in overweight patients with hyperlipidemia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Kishimoto, Y., Yoshida, H., and Kondo, K. (2016). Drug Insight: mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications for agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. For example, Khabazian et al. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx163. Physical inactivity contributes to increased cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, which are leading causes of death worldwide (Rosamond et al., 2008). Rehabil. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00309.2012, Guay, S. P., Brisson, D., Lamarche, B., Marceau, P., Vohl, M. C., Gaudet, D., et al. In both sexes, methylation of CETP was negatively correlated with LDL-c concentration. (2016), they compared the chronic effects of high-intensity training [12 intervals at 1 min work (90–100 VV O2max) with 1 min active recovery (50% VV O2max)], and moderate aerobic endurance training (70–80% VV O2max) on chronic inflammation and changes in the lipid profile. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2005.10.001, Thorning, T. K., Raziani, F., Bendsen, N. T., Astrup, A., Tholstrup, T., and Raben, A. (2011). Metabol. Natl. Cardiovasc. Therefore, the objective of this review is to debate about non-medical approaches to increase HDL-c, such as nutritional and training strategies, and to discuss the central mechanisms involved in the modulation of lipid profile during exercise, as well as that can be controlled by physical trainers or sports specialists in attempt to maximize the benefits promoted by exercise. (2012) investigated the involvement of PPAR delta in the improvement of lipoproteins among obese individuals after 12 weeks of aerobic training. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.3303, Rader, D. J. doi: 10.1073/pnas.091021198, Olson, R. E. (1998). Food Funct. (2015). HDL cholesterol content in plasma seems to be crucial in both prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic diseases, since this molecule exerts anti-inflammatory functions as well as exerts positive effects on CRT. Relation between soy-associated isoflavones and LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations in humans: a meta-analysis. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.187998, Rosenson, R. S., Brewer, H. B. Jr., Ansell, B. J., Barter, P., Chapman, M. J., Heinecke, J. W., et al. High‐density lipoprotein plays a key role in the process of reverse cholesterol transport, by which HDL is able to extract excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and transfer it to the liver for biliary excretion. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2008.06.030, Rondanelli, M., Giacosa, A., Morazzoni, P., Guido, D., Grassi, M., Morandi, G., et al. In a recent study, Rossi et al. (2015). (2014) showed an increased gene expression of SR-B1 and ABCA1 after 8 weeks of aerobic training in ovariectomized rats. 2011;17(9):861-70. doi: 10.2174/138161211795428858. Free cholesterol is removed from tissues by plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and transported to the liver, where it is eliminated from the body either unchanged or after conversion to bile acids in the process known as reverse cholesterol transport . Lipoproteins containing apoA-I (HDL) are key mediators in RCT (9–11), whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. 52, 1059–1063. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500030. Amino Acids. Res. clinical studies have shown that soy protein intake may only cause a slight increase in serum HDL cholesterol concentration (Weggemans and Trautwein, 2003), however, supplementation with isoflavones appears to have a significant improvement in postmenopausal women (Taku et al., 2007). (2000). Lipids 47, 679–686. Keywords: For women, hazard ratios were 1.10 (0.83–1.46) for HDL cholesterol of 3.0–3.49 mmol/L (116–134 mg/dL) and 1.68 (1.09–2.58) for HDL cholesterol ≥3.5 mmol/L (135 mg/dL). J. Exerc. Complementary phenol-enriched olive oil improves HDL characteristics in Hypercholesterolemic subjects. HHS  |  Drugs 14, 253–274. Several studies have investigated the effect of exercise training, especially aerobic, on the modulation of proteins involved in RCT as described in Tables 2 and 3. raise plasma HDL concentrations and promote macrophage RCT and in proving that these new therapeutic interventions. Effect of Antiatherosclerotic Agents on Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Hyperlipidemic Anumal Models 61-63 8.6. Metab. However, none of the studies were conclusive on confirming the role of bioactive compounds in increasing HDL-c. Lipid parameter for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease. J. Nutr. The most abundant apolipoproteins are A (apoA) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (Shaeffer et al., 1978). Received: 17 November 2017; Accepted: 24 April 2018;Published: 15 May 2018. Gupta et al. Endocrinol. Avelino A. P., Oliveira G. M., Ferreira C. C., Luiz R. R., Rosa G. (2015). Several studies have investigated non-pharmacological strategies of prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia, such as enhanced HDL-c by increased physical activity, improved diet, or a combination of these in different populations. TD, BA, and FR performed the data collection and drafting of the paper. Inflammation on Reverse Cholesterol Transport 8.6.1. 85 709–717. The U.S. dietary recommen… Combined training (aerobic plus strength) potentiates a reduction in body fat but demonstrates no difference on the lipid profile in postmenopausal women when compared with aerobic training with a similar training load. Nutr. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1370910, Olchawa, B., Kingwell, B. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. Although exercise has been used as a cardioprotective intervention, the mechanisms involved still need to be fully elucidated. 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