On the other hand, where substantive numbers of white settlers were absent (as in most of West and west-central Africa, as well as Uganda), then Christian missionaries and the colonial authorities tended to develop clearly mutually supportive relationships. However, the relation between politics and religion in Africa cannot be so easily compartmentalized. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. London, 1996. Many churches, synagogues, mosques, and temples have offered worship through livestream amidst the pandemic.. For example, they may question to what extent a certain religious group also serves as a vehicle of sociopolitical change. Islam in Africa can be divided into at least three distinct categories, corresponding to extant social, cultural, and historical divisions. E-mail Citation » An idiosyncratic collection of sources from professional to popular. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. In the post-Apartheid period, there is a record increase in the practice of AIR in South Africa. Multiple Voices: Challenges Posed for Religion Education in South Africa, David Chidester 28 - 32 6. Because most mainstream expressions of both Christianity and Islam tended to be unidentified with the main interest groups, whether ethnic or class, their leaders stood on relatively neutral ground and thus could serve as a mediating element when social or political conflict occurred. Religion in Africa. References This points to how religious and political power have developed historically in and between African religious traditions. It is significant that such Christian leaders were not, on the whole, in the forefront of demands for similar political reforms during the twilight of colonial rule in the 1950s and 1960s. The simple answer is that in the 1950s and 1960s senior Christian leaders in Africa were almost always Europeans. As a result, a partnership with state-level politicians is of crucial importance. Discusses the political roles of Islam in Nigeria. Social dynamics in Africa may best be viewed as an entwined triple-stranded helix of state, class, and ethnicity. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Leeuw (2004:20-36) goes further and states that African religion is a misnomer, because the ideas behind actions of ritual and rite relate to African thought and not to religion — a concept not even accommodated originally in African languages. As a result, the various traditional religious activities had to function within the Europeans' legal jurisdiction. Such people tended overwhelmingly to support the concept—if not always every aspect of the practice—of colonial rule for three main reasons. Sociologists seek to identify and examine religion's general and specific social imports in the countries of the region. For example, senior Christian figures were involved in national democratization conferences in seven francophone African countries in the early 1990s; these were events held to ascertain the best ways to deliver appropriate political reforms, notably democratization. However, sometimes after serious opposition (e.g., in the West African empire of El Hadj Oumar against the French, the Hausa-Fulani empire against the British, and in much of Muslim Somalia prior to World War I) Muslim leaders were generally pragmatic enough to reach a modus vivendi with the colonial authorities. Examines the role of various Christian churches in the antiapartheid and prodemocracy movement in South Africa. Encyclopedia of Religion. Third, there is ambivalence in the way that many Muslims regard the concept of liberal democracy itself. Princeton, N.J., 1985. Itinerario 7, no. A History of African Christianity, 1950–75. Country Analysis The following section will contain an analysis on South Africa’s political, economic, legal, cultural and commercial aspects of doing business with South Africa. not well thought of by White people in South Africa; however, despite the condemnation, AIR continues to be practiced even in the present. "The Fundamentalist Impact on Law, Politics, and Constitutions in Iran, Pakistan, and the Sudan." Reactions in many African countries not only to failed modernization but also to ideas such as democracy spread by globalization were often focused in vociferous demands for incumbent governments to resign. This involves both personal belief systems as well as group ideologies, which together help to motivate individuals and groups to behave in a variety of ways. How to do business, ” says Morne Cronje, FNB head of Franchising at,. 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