The Battle of Hampton Roads was a significant event in both Naval and Civil War history that has been detailed in many books, televised Civil War documentaries, and in film, to include TNT's 1991 Ironclads. The name of the warship that served the Confederacy in the Battle of Hampton Roads has been a continuing source of confusion and some contention. LOCATION Located inside the Chesapeake Bay, Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. The Battle of Hampton Roads was a major naval battle of the Civil War, and this quiz/worksheet combo will help you test your understanding of it. Ericsson's Monitor, which was built at Ericsson's yard on the East River in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, incorporated new and striking design features, the most significant of which were her armor and armament. A small community in Montgomery County, Virginia, near the location where the iron for the Confederate ironclad was forged is now known as Merrimac. The flat iron deck had a 20-foot cylindrical turret rising from the middle of the ship; the turret housed two 11-inch Dahlgren guns. The destruction of the navy yard was mostly ineffective; in particular, the large drydock there was relatively undamaged and soon could be restored. When the war broke out, President Abraham Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of key southern ports. The three men were Captains Joseph Smith,[30] Hiram Paulding, and Commander Charles Henry Davis. The Battle of Hampton Roads was the first naval battle of the Civil War. . Jones proved to be no less aggressive than the man he replaced. Although he had orders from (Union) Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to move his ships to Northern ports, he refused to act until April 20, when he gave orders to scuttle the ships in the yard and destroy its facilities. Because the blockade was unbroken, Norfolk was of little strategic use to the Confederacy, and preliminary plans were laid to move the ship up the James River to the vicinity of Norfolk. [50] While the surviving crewmen of Congress were being ferried off the ship, a Union battery on the north shore opened fire on Virginia. Designed by Swedish engineer John Ericsson, the vessel had an unusually low profile, rising from the water only 18 inches. The Battle of Hampton Roads started when Lincoln pushed the Union to form a blockade around Virginia's largest cities, Norfolk and Richmond from international trade. She retreated into the safety of Confederate-controlled waters off Sewell's Point for the night,[54] but had killed 400 enemy sailors and had lost two. The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Merrimac), was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies. However, the action was halted by darkness and falling tide, so Virginia retired to take care of her few wounded—which included her captain, Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan—and repair her minimal battle damage. On July 11, 1861, the new design was accepted, and work began almost immediately. The executive officer, Lieutenant Samuel Dana Greene, took over, and Monitor returned to the fight. She was followed by the three ships of the James River Squadron. Draw, both sides claim victory. This skirmish of 1862, which unfolded off the east coast of the United States, was the first-ever battle in world history to take place between ironclad warships. The commandant there, Captain Charles S. McCauley, though loyal to the Union, was immobilized by advice he received from his subordinate officers, most of whom were in favor of secession. Naval consturutors tried to make armor vessels. But why was the Battle of Gettysburg so important and is it considered to be a turning point of the war? Because of her deep draft and the falling tide, however, Virginia was unable to get close enough to be effective, and darkness prevented the rest of the squadron from aiming their guns to any effect. Ericsson was afraid that using the full 30 pounds of black powder to fire the huge cannon would raise the risk of an explosion in the turret. Lt. John Worden commandeered the USS Monitor to deflect any offensive the Merrimack, now renamed CSS Virginia, directed toward them. "Msgr. The end came first for Virginia. The conduct of the Officers and men of the squadron … reflects unfading honor upon themselves and upon the Navy. As the combat between ironclads was the primary significance of the battle, the general verdict is that the overall result was a draw. Neither ship was seriously damaged, but the Monitor effectively ended the short reign of terror that the Confederate ironclad had brought to the Union fleet. Convinced that Virginia was quitting, with orders only to protect Minnesota and not to risk his ship unnecessarily, Greene did not pursue. It was fought on March 8 and 9, 1862 near Hampton Roads , Virginia . It is reported that it will take about ten years for the metal to completely stabilize. Monitor steamed into the Chesapeake Bay to protect the rest of the Union’s wooden fleet, including the U.S.S. "The Battle of Hampton Roads: A Revolution in Military Affairs.” U.S. Army Command, 6 June 2003. Its presence meant that the guns could not fire directly forward, and it was isolated from other activities on the ship. The entrance to Hampton Roads is guarded by forts Monroe and Wool. 95 (17 wounded) Significance. It was completed only after the war started, and was then renamed for the general who directed the defense of the region. In 1973, the wreck of the Monitor was discovered at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Shiloh General (North) Grant. USS Congress (1841)—the fourth United States Navy ship to carry that name—was a sailing frigate, like her predecessor, USS Congress (1799).. Congress served in the Mediterranean, South Atlantic Ocean, and in the Pacific Ocean. [14] With Fort Monroe went control of the lower Peninsula as far as Newport News. The Confederates tried to break the blockade in Virginia in this battle, but was not able to do so. On March 9, 1862, one of the most famous naval battles in American history occurred as two ironclads, the U.S.S.Monitor and the C.S.S. [9] Merrimack burned only to the waterline, however, and her engines were more or less intact. The Battle of Hampton Roads was an American Civil War battle fought at the meeting point of three rivers very close to Chesapeake Bay. Duel of Iron details the battle of Hampton Roads fought on March 8 th and 9 th, 1862. This battle happened in March of 1862 at Hampton Roads, VA. Virginia left with the expectation of returning the next day and completing the task. There was an estimated 188 Confederate soldiers engaged in the Battle of Hampton Roads. It’s commander, Franklin Buchanan, was the only full admiral in the Confederate Navy during the Civil War. The next day, the U.S.S. Description: The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (aka Merrimac or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies. [63][64][65], The battle finally ceased when a shell from Virginia struck the pilot house of Monitor and exploded, driving fragments of paint and iron through the viewing slits into Worden's eyes and temporarily blinding him. Still, this was a historic battle because it marked the first time two ironclad ships fought against each other. Battle Off the Virginia Capes . Battle of the Ironclads (Monitor and Merrimack/Virginia) Location. The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most notable and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War. She also imposed other constraints on the Peninsula Campaign then being mounted by the Union Army under General George B. McClellan, who worried that she could interfere with his positions on the York River. Although Minnesota was still aground, the falling tide meant that she was out of reach. Appears to be a military student's Master's Thesis submission. [66], Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory wrote to Confederate President Davis of the action:[67]. Minnesota. [25] The burned-out hull was towed into the graving dock that the Union Navy had failed to destroy. Description: The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (aka Merrimac or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies. North. While Virginia was being prepared for renewal of the battle, and while Congress was still ablaze, Monitor, commanded by Lieutenant John L. Worden, arrived in Hampton Roads. Some of the iron mined there and used in the plating on the Confederate ironclad is displayed at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth. Ordered to Hampton Roads, Va., the USS Monitor arrived on the evening of March 8, 1862. In early 1860, the ship was decommissioned for extensive repairs at the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk, Virginia. During the subsequent conversion process, the plans developed further, incorporating an iron ram fitted to the prow. Duel of Iron details the battle of Hampton Roads fought on March 8 th and 9 th, 1862. Lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones had directed much of the conversion of Merrimack to Virginia, and he was disappointed when he was not named her captain. Library of Congress. The Hampton Roads Peace Conference, designed to bring the war to and end, took place here but had no effect. The fall of Mobile Bay was a major ...read more, In early 1862, the Union and the Confederacy were locked in one of the most influential arms races of the Civil War. The historic significance of the Battle of Hampton Roads is that it was the first meeting in combat of ironclad warships USS Monitor and CSS Virginia. Rather than allow either, Tatnall decided to destroy his own ship. In an effort to gain control of rivers and supply lines west of the Appalachians, Union Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant and Commodore Andrew Foote ...read more. The C.S.S. The Battle of Hampton Roads was the first naval battle of the Civil War. Despite the many technological innovations that were on display during the Battle of Hampton Roads, one of the most lethal weapons employed was a large, 1,500lb iron ram attached to the bow of the Virginia. This preliminary skirmishing had no effect. March 23, 1862: First Battle of Kernstown Casualties: 1,308 590 Union 718 Confederate. [52], Although she had not suffered anything like the damage she had inflicted, Virginia was not completely unscathed. The armor of both ships proved adequate. Shiloh General (South) A.S. Johnston. According to the Battle of Hampton Roads Songfacts, The Battle of Hampton Roads was arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War from the standpoint of the development of navies, its major significance being that it was the first meeting in combat of ironclad warships. Battle of the Ironclads (Monitor and Merrimack/Virginia) Location. Return fire from Cumberland and Congress bounced off the iron plates without penetrating, although later some of Cumberland's gunfire lightly damaged Virginia. The Battle of Hampton Roads is also called the Battle of Monitor and Merrimack. Both captains declined the opportunity to fight in water not of their own choosing; Jeffers in particular was under positive orders not to risk his ship. It also shows the routes of the vessels and where they saiiled into the battle. Virginia) during the American Civil War (1861-65) and was history’s first naval battle between ironclad warships.It was part of a Confederate effort to break the Union blockade of Southern ports, including Norfolk and Richmond, Virginia, that had been imposed at the start of the war. Numerous fragile artifacts, including the innovative turret and its two Dahlgren guns, an anchor, steam engine, and propeller, have been recovered. The Confederates tried to break the blockade in Virginia in this battle, but was not able to do so. As Roanoke was one of the ships that ran aground, Marston was unable to materially influence the battle, and his participation is often disregarded. [41], At this time, the Union Navy had five warships in the roadstead, in addition to several support vessels. [55], Both sides used the respite to prepare for the next day. The design of the USS Monitor was so innovative, that when it was launched, the ship featured more than 40 different newly patented inventions. On April 4, she was able to leave drydock. Battle of Hampton Roads. Secretary Mallory wanted the aggressive Franklin Buchanan, but at least two other captains had greater seniority and had applied for the post. She continued to operate as an American warship until the American Civil War, when she was sunk by the ironclad CSS Virginia in battle of Newport News, Virginia. Schneller, "A state of war is a most unfavorable period for experiments," retrieved August 24, 2009. Upon learning this, Williamson suggested taking the engines from the hulk of Merrimack, recently raised from the bed of the Elizabeth River. Battle of Shiloh: Casualties and Significance The cost of the victory was high. This map shows the battlegrounds of the battle. At first, Jones believed the strange craft—which one Confederate sailor mocked as "a cheese on a raft"—to be a boiler being towed from the Minnesota, not realizing the nature of his opponent. The Civil War battle between the Monitor and the CSS Virginia (Merrimack) took place here. [5], The battle received worldwide attention, and it had immediate effects on navies around the world. Virginia. It will be remembered that the Virginia was a novelty in naval architecture, wholly unlike any ship that ever floated; that her heaviest guns were equal novelties in ordnance; that her motive power and obedience to her helm were untried, and her officers and crew strangers, comparatively, to the ship and to each other; and yet, under all these disadvantages, the dashing courage and consummate professional ability of Flag Officer Buchanan and his associates achieved the most remarkable victory which naval annals record. With the 150th anniversary of the famous battle between the USS Monitor and CSS Virginia now before us, the Civil War Trust recently had the opportunity to speak with noted naval historian and author Craig Symonds about the Battle of Hampton Roads and the historical significance of the first battle between ironclad naval vessels. Merrimack Rechristened the C.S.S. The Battle of Hampton Roads was a naval battle of the American Civil War.It was fought on March 8 and 9, 1862 near Hampton Roads, Virginia.It was an important battle because it was the first combat between ironclad warships.. [citation needed], 1862 naval battle in the American Civil War, the first between ironclads, Commemorating the Battle of Hampton Roads. The March 9, 1862, battle between the Monitor and the Merrimack (CSS Virginia) during the American Civil War (1861-65) was historys first duel between ironclad warships. When the war broke out, President Abraham Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of key southern ports. [24] His colleagues promptly accepted his suggestion and expanded it, proposing that the design of their projected ironclad be adapted to the hull. It was fought through march 8-9 1862. On March 8, Virginia steamed down the Elizabeth River into the roadstead where it sank USS Cumberland and ran USS Congress aground and set it afire. Impressed by the ease with which Virginia had sunk Cumberland, naval architects began to incorporate rams into their hull designs. Tucker 2006, p. 175; Luraghi 1996, p. 148. By late March, the Union blockade fleet had been augmented by hastily refitted civilian ships, including the powerful SS Vanderbilt,[72] SS Arago, SS Illinois, and SS Ericsson. The Confederate fleet consisted of the ironclad ram CSS Virginia (built from the remnants of the USS Merrimack) and several supporting vessels.On the first day of battle, they were opposed by several conventional, wooden-hulled ships of the Union Navy. Instead of the large numbers of guns of rather small bore that had characterized warships in the past, Ericsson opted for only two guns of large caliber; he wanted to use 15 in (380 mm) guns, but had to settle for 11 in (280 mm) Dahlgren guns when the larger size were unavailable. A headline in a Boston newspaper the day after the battle read "The Merrimac Driven back by the Steamer! "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Virginia rammed Cumberland below the waterline and she sank rapidly, "gallantly fighting her guns as long as they were above water," according to Buchanan. At about this time, Monitor returned, only to discover her opponent apparently giving up the fight. Date . The Monitor, The Merrimack...The U.S.S. Six weeks later, a salvage company raised the ship and the Confederates began rebuilding it. In New York City, where the designer of the Monitor, John Ericsson, died in March 1889, a statue was commissioned by the state to commemorate the battle between the Ironclads.The statue features a stylized male nude allegorical figure on water between two iron cleats. [70] Monitor, not severely damaged, remained on duty. Deogracias, Alan J. Virginia fought to a draw off Hampton Roads, Virginia. She was trapped and could only be captured or sunk by the Union Navy. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Hampton_Roads&oldid=992804170, Battles of the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Battles of the American Civil War in Virginia, Inconclusive battles of the American Civil War, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Sleater-Kinney recorded an indie rock song referencing the battle, "Ironclad," on the album, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 05:01. Experiments had been tried with armor during the Crimean War (1853–1856), just prior to the American Civil War,[18] and the British and French navies had each built armored ships and were planning to build others. [45] Virginia did not open fire until she was within easy range of Cumberland. It is located in Msgr McGolrick Park. Near midnight, the flames reached her magazine and she exploded and sank, stern first. The order was given to abandon ship; most men were rescued by USS Rhode Island, but 16 went down with her when she sank in the early hours of December 31, 1862. Hampton Roads General (South) C.S.S. Seeing what had happened to Cumberland, Lieutenant Joseph B. Smith, captain of Congress, ordered his ship grounded in shallow water. On March 8, the Confederate's biggest iron clad, the CSS Virginia, attacked two of the unions ships, the USS Congress and the USS Cumberland. The Confederate experienced 7 casualties and 17 wounded, missing or captured soldiers. When the main warships ...read more, The Battle of Antietam, also called the Battle of Sharpsburg, occurred on September 17, 1862, at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Russia, fearing that the American Civil War would spill into Russian Alaska, launched ten sister ships, as soon as Ericsson's plans reached St. Petersburg. Battle of Hampton Roads. [48][49], Buchanan next turned Virginia on Congress. [58] They found their course blocked, however, by the newly arrived Monitor. Though the Battle of Hampton Roads prevented the Virginia from achieving its objective, the real significance of the battle was its demonstration that wooden ships stood no chance against ironclads, almost instantly outdating navies around the globe. The ships did not fight again, and the blockade remained in place. [51] Personnel losses included 110 killed or missing and presumed drowned. IMPACT OF BATTLE. As he looked upon it, the Confederacy could not match the industrial North in numbers of ships at sea, so they would have to compete by building vessels that individually outclassed those of the Union. Had it come loose, the two ships might have gone down together. [77], However, initially after the Battle of Hampton Roads, both the Confederates and the Unions used media to claim victory for their own sides. Tests conducted after the battle showed that the Dahlgren guns could be operated safely and efficiently with charges of as much as 30 lb (14 kg). The Battle of Hampton Roads was a naval battle of the American Civil War. [56] "All on board felt we had a friend that would stand by us in our hour of trial," wrote Captain Gershom Jacques Van Brunt, Minnesota's commander, in his official report the day after the engagement. [8] Even before the extension, local troops seized the Norfolk area and threatened the Gosport Navy Yard in Portsmouth. Ambrose Burnside, the newly appointed commander of the Army of the Potomac, had ordered his more than 120,000 troops to cross the ...read more, Part of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15), the Battle of Trafalgar featured a clash of Franco-Spanish and British fleets off the western mouth of the Straits of Gibraltar. However, while the design proved exceptionally well-suited for river combat, the low profile and heavy turret caused poor seaworthiness in rough waters. [86] The alliteration of Monitor and Merrimack has persuaded most popular accounts to adopt the familiar name, even when it is acknowledged to be technically incorrect. (See map. As with Virginia, trials found that a full charge would pierce armor plate, a finding that would have affected the outcome of the battle. First meeting in combat of ironclad warships. The Hampton Roads Conference was a peace conference held between the United States and representatives of the unrecognized breakaway Confederate States on February 3, 1865, aboard the steamboat River Queen in Hampton Roads, Virginia, to discuss terms to end the American Civil War.President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward, representing the Union, … [21], When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen R. 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